A WPGA White Paper Executive Summary The use of sunlight for sanitizing and disinfecting has a long and well-proven history that dates back to ancient Greece and Egypt. Extensive research conducted over the past 100 years has enhanced our knowledge of the germ-killing properties of sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) rays. This has further led on to the development of artificial UV sources that are more precise, safer, and far more effective than natural solar light. 2 POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS As researchers continue to establish new findings around lights of specific wavelengths and their impact on both germicidal disinfection and medical treatment, incumbent sources such as mercury arc lamps — the previously most widely-used UV lamp sources — are being outperformed by UV LED light. As toxicity-free and eco-friendly alternatives to mercury lamps, UV LEDs have emerged as UV sources that save energy with a smaller footprint and a longer lifetimes. Today, the UV LED market is estimated to grow 24% CAGR from 2018-2023 with some market estimates reaching $4B globally. The rising concerns regarding the health hazards of mercury, the plummeting costs of LEDs and the emerging application areas of UV LED lights such as disinfection and purification, among others, are some of the factors driving the growth of the market. In this whitepaper, we will delve into the advantages of UV LED systems over traditional disinfection technologies, discuss major UV LED applications, and provide an overview of LED modules brought to the market by LG Innotek — a global materials and components company with over 18 years of experience in LED manufacturing. UV LED: The Next-Generation of Ultraviolet Sterilization Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light, X-rays, and infrared light. The UV part of the electromagnetic spectrum falls between 10nm and 400nm, and constitutes nearly 10% of the total solar light output. Visible light has a longer wavelength than UV rays, ranging from 400nm to 700nm, while X-rays are shorter and fall within the 0.01nm-10nm range. The UV light can be divided into three distinct spectral bands (Fig.1): • UV-A: 315 to 400 nm (long-wave UV) • UV-B: 280 to 315 nm (medium-wave UV) • UV-C: 100 to 280 nm (short-wave UV) 3 WHAT IS UV LIGHT? It’s light in the UV-C wavelength that can disinfect water, purify air, and sterilize surfaces by destroying harmful microbial contaminants and surface pathogens. UV-A is used in curing and printing, and UV-B finds applications in phototherapy. Recent research has shown UV-B to have germicidal properties as well. Just like the visible portion of the spectrum, UV light can be generated by artificial means such as UV lamps – which can be deuterium gas discharge lamps, mercury arc or vapor lamps – and LED luminaires. UV-B/C UV-A Visible Infrared 340 400 780200 1000 (nm) Fig.1: UV & Visible Light Spectrum STERILIZING WITH UV LED TECHNOLOGY UV LEDs combine the benefits of LED (energy efficiency, longer lifespan, small form factor, and mechanical robustness) with the germicidal benefits of ultraviolet light. In years past, UV-C light in 254nm was considered the optimum wavelength for germicidal purposes, primarily because 254nm was the peak UV light that mercury vapor lamps could produce. Today, we have UV-C LEDs that can generate 265nm – the most effective wavelength for disinfection. Moreover, UV LEDs can be tuned to specific wavelength bands. This is especially critical considering that research has proven that different germs respond to different UV wavelengths. With the discovery of newer and better combinations of semiconductors and dopants, it is increasingly possible to produce a wider, more intense and efficient range of wavelengths and light outputs for UV LED applications. POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS Besides the UV-C LED, longer wavelengths in the 400-405nm range show germicidal action by triggering photo-activation in bacteria, yeast, and fungi. LG Innotek’s ‘Visible Disinfection Lighting’ maximizes the use of the 405nm wavelength to create eco-friendly sterilization in indoor spaces conveniently and safely. 4 450nm light has no harmful effects on the body, which is why it can be safely used to sterilize large spaces that are frequented by people, such as public restrooms, medical facilities, and commercial kitchens. According to test results, LG Innotek’s 405nm Disinfection Lighting kills 99.9% of E.coli and S.aureus over a 16-hour exposure time. While UV-C works by breaking the DNA of harmful micro-organisms, 405nm light reacts with a substance called ‘porphyrin’ inside bacterial molecules to produce a lethal ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) that damages the microorganisms’ cell membrane, causing cell death (Fig.2). Another major difference between the two wavelengths is their effect on the human body. Depending on the distance and time of exposure, UV-C radiation may cause some temporary harm to the eyes and skin. One of the strongest USPs of 405nm light is that it provides the advantage of safe and continuous disinfection, while illuminating the space at the same time. As such, this light source allows OEMs to design practical lighting solutions with effective germicidal powers. VISIBLE LIGHT DISINFECTION Fig.2: UV-C & Visible Light Disinfection POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS UV LED VS. OTHER UV TECHNOLOGIES LED, mercury arc, and vapor lamps all release UV light, but UV LEDs have certain unique characteristics that make their spectral output quite different from that of more conventional systems. 5 THE MINAMATA CONVENTION ON MERCURY POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS THE HAZARDS OF MERCURY Several different types of mercury-containing light bulbs exist on the market available to consumers, and since elemental mercury is toxic, special care must be taken when handling these products. Mild, limited exposure to mercury can cause insomnia, headache, mood changes, muscle atrophy and irritability. Extended exposure to mercury in certain types of bulbs can result in respiratory or kidney failure, even death. Advancements in technology and new research on UV and the use of LEDs has led to the greater adoption of LEDs as a more responsible and environmentally friends light source. As aforementioned, UV LED is an eco-friendly option because the light it emits does not include any chemical substances or heavy metals. an international treaty recognized by the United Nations, addresses the environmental and human health effects of anthropogenic emissions and the release of mercury and mercury compounds. Building on the European Union (EU) ban of mercury in many products – including lighting - the Minamata Convention contains provisions that relate to the entire life cycle of mercury, including controls and reductions across a range of products, processes and industries where mercury is used, released or emitted. It also addresses primary mining of mercury, its export and import, its safe storage and its disposal once it is waste. While the Minamata Convention on Mercury may not affect your business directly, you may engage with a company that must follow the regulations of the Minamata Convention, such as those in the EU market. For more information on the Minamata Convention on Mercury, visit www.mercuryconvention.org. Firstly, UV LEDs are point sources that produce a relatively monochromatic band of UV concentrated at a specified peak wavelength. Contrastingly, mercury arc and vapor lamps are broadband sources. This is also why no filters are necessary when using UV LEDs. Today’s global economy allows businesses to connect and conduct transactions with companies all over the globe, with each company adopting the regulations and policy standards of their home country. For US businesses dealing with application areas of European companies, it is important to note the Minamata Convention on Mercury, www.mercuryconvention.org UV LED Applications & Products Due to the performance, cost, and durability benefits combined with ongoing research and innovation in developing better and more efficient LED products, UV LEDs are being integrated into a rapidly growing number of applications. The following table lists some major application areas and supporting UV LED types. 6 KEY APPLICATION AREAS CATEGORY APPLICATION AREA REQUIREMENT LED SOLUTION Living Washing machines Water for rinsing, detergent slot UV-C Deodorizing clothes UV-A + TiO2 Dryers Heat exchanger surface UV-C Cloth managing machines Vacuum cleaners Charging station UV-C Dust canisters 405nm Kitchen Refrigerators Water dispenser faucet tip UV-C Deodorization UV-A + TiO2 Ovens Tray, kitchen tools UV-C Water purifiers Water dispenser faucet tip, water tank UV-C Dish washers Filter, remaining water UV-C Air Air conditioners Drain fan UV-C Heat exchanger surface 405nm Air purifiers Deodorization, inner space disinfection 405nm Consumer electronics Skincare product sterilizers Sterilization of ‘skin contact area’ UV-C Escalator handrail sterilizers Sterilization of handle UV-C Bio-medical Psoriasis treatment Eliminating activated immune cells (T-cells) UV-B POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS With constant efforts to improve the optical power and output of UV-C LEDs, LG Innotek has been utilizing its proprietary LED vertical chip technology to introduce new products that provide more powerful sterilizing effects with higher light output. The company intends to continue expanding the use of UV LEDs into larger commercial and residential applications in the coming years. LG Innotek has the following current line-up of UV LED products in its portfolio: 7 LG INNOTEK PRODUCT LINE-UP Fig.3: LG Innotek Product Line-up UV-A POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS 8 LG INNOTEK PRODUCT LINE-UP CONTINUED Fig.4: LG Innotek Product Line-up UV-B and UV-C POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS Conclusion Adopting UV LEDs offer many practical advantages over conventional UV lamps in terms of performance, efficiency, reliability, safety, and cost of operation. Potential regulatory barriers for mercury-based products, consumer preference for non-toxic products, and pressure from competitors are further motivating OEMs and design engineers for purification equipment, consumer products, and medical devices to consider UV LEDs. To this end, the ability to match the right LED product to your requirement is absolutely critical. With nearly two decades of experience in the design and manufacture of LED systems for OEMs, LG Innotek is well-positioned to identify and deliver the optimum UV LED sterilizing system for your application. For more information on UV LED lighting products from LG Innotek, please contact WPG Americas at 408-392-8100 or visit community.wpgamericas.com 9 About WPG Americas WPG Americas Inc. is a member of WPG Holdings, the largest electronics distributor in Asia. Founded in November 2007, WPG Americas is a franchised partner to technology leaders in the Semiconductor, Passive, Electromechanical, Interconnect, Display and Lighting Solutions markets. As a member of WPG Holdings, WPG Americas is uniquely positioned to support our diverse customer base including contract manufacturers (CMs), original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and value-added resellers (VARs). WPG Americas is focused on providing total solutions to our customers and suppliers via superior design engineering services, a focused line card and exceptional, quality service. Corporate Headquarters: WPG Americas San Jose 5285 Hellyer Avenue Suite 150 San Jose, CA 95138 Created by New Angle Media POWER YOUR UV LED APPLICATIONS
Power Your UV LED Applications with LG Innotek
Extensive research over the past century has enhanced our knowledge of the germ-killing properties of sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) rays, which has led to the development of artificial UV light sources that are more precise, safer and more effective than natural light. Learn more about LG Innotek’s UV LEDs and their areas of application.
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