1 Introduction The issue of tombstoning rose to prominence because, while components and assemblies have become much smaller over time, overall assembly processes have remained much the same. As components become smaller, so can your process windows. There was a time when a Type 2 solder paste and chemically etched stencil were acceptable for almost all assemblies. Throughout the 1990s, Type 3 solder paste and laser cut stencils became the norm. For those using micro-components today, a Type 4 solder paste and an electroformed stencil can be a prerequisite to highly consistent stencil printing. Likewise, equipment that can place components within +/- 50-100 microns (while suitable in its day) is no longer acceptable when placing 0201s or even 01005s. Ovens too have become more capable as well. Tombstoned component Why does a component tombstone? As the flux and solder alloy liquefy and wet to each side of a component, they apply small amounts of torque through surface tension. The torque applied by the surface tension of liquid flux and solder has traditionally been a fringe benefit, helping to center misaligned chip components. However, this friend has become a foe in modern electronics assembly. Tombstoning is caused by minute differences in wetting force from one side of a chip component to the other. When there is a sufficient imbalance in torque, relative to the mass of the component, the component is tipped upright (tombstoned), consigning the product to either scrap or rework. Chip components have gotten much smaller over the years with many weighing in the milligrams. The same torque that once helped alignment now has the power to tombstone components. The only way to completely eliminate the tombstoning effect is to tighten your process variables. There are many process variables that actively contribute to tombstoning. These include, but are not limited to, trace/ board design, pad design, component and board oxidation, solder paste, stencil design, print process, placement process, and reflow process. Appropriate modification of one or more of these process variables will reduce or eliminate tombstoning. Key tombstoning variables Trace/Board Design – When board designers are laying out a circuit board, manufacturability considerations are often unknown or ignored. Having established that wetting force imbalance causes tombstoning, one of the primary causes for imbalance is the difference in temperature and, correspondingly, the difference in time of reflow between the two pads the chip sits on. Pad 2 Pad 1 Example: Pad 1 is connected to a wide trace, ground plane, or other heat sinking element. Pad 2 is connected to a thinner trace or less massive circuitry element. Pad 2 will often be hotter than Pad 1 and reflow before Pad 1. This temperature difference results in a reflow timing difference. When Pad 2 wets first, the wetting force from Pad 2 may be enough to overcome the force from Pad 1 resulting in a tombstoned component. Tombstone Troubleshooting John Vivari, Nordson EFD Figure 1 Paste has not fully wet Paste wets, producing torque, which lifts component 2 Pad Design – Mechanical advantage also plays a role in both tombstoning and skewing for the same reasons. The larger the pad relative to the size of the component, the longer the “lever” that the liquid flux and solder can apply. When a pad is too wide, imbalance in force between side fillets will skew the component. When a pad is too long it increases mechanical advantage applied by the toe fillet, making it easier to tombstone the component. Chip component pads should be no larger than necessary to meet mechanical and inspection requirements. In some cases, visual inspection requirements for fillet height will prevent the successful elimination of tombstoning due to restrictions on other aspects of the process. Component and Board Oxidation – Oxidation on either pad or component surfaces will cause slight delays in wetting. The difference in wetting time from one pad to the other can cause tombstoning. High quality boards and components along with proper storage practices will help to eliminate this factor. Component Geometry – Capacitors, inductors, and other “thick” chip components are statistically more likely to tombstone than resistors and other “thin” chip components. The risk of tombstoning is larger for the same reason as for oversize pads. The distance that the flux and solder wet up the termination adds to mechanical advantage. Component size and mass also play a key role. The lighter the component, the less force it takes to tombstone. A process that is tombstone free with 0603 components may be unsuited to 0402 components. As newer, smaller chips are introduced into your production process, incremental changes may be required to deal with the new challenge. Sample chip components (left to right): 0805, 0603, 0402, 0201, 01005 Solder Paste – Solder paste is actually a mixture of two independent materials: flux and alloy. In rare circumstances, particularly bad flux formulations do not provide sufficient tack just prior to and during reflow. Side-by-side comparisons of pastes are required to identify differences in performance. With regards to alloy, it turns out that there is a difference in performance between eutectic and non-eutectic alloys. Eutectic alloy changes state from solid to liquid all at once at a single temperature, developing full surface tension suddenly. Non-eutectic alloys change state gradually over a temperature range, developing surface tension over a longer time period, applying surface tension in proportion. Non-eutectic alloys such as Sn62/Pb36/Ag2 and Sn96/ Ag3.0/Cu0.5 have correspondingly lower incidence of tombstoning than Sn63/Pb37 and other eutectic alloys. The larger the melting range, the lower the probability of tombstoning. Alloy Solidus (° C) Liquidus (° C) Sn42 Bi58 -E- 138 Sn43 Pb43 Bi14 144 163 Sn62 Pb36 Ag2.0 179 189 Sn63 Pb37 -E- 183 Sn60 Pb40 183 191 Sn96.5 Ag3.0 Cu0.5 217 219 Sn96.3 Ag3.7 -E- 221 Sn100 MP 232 Sn95 Sb5 232 240 Sn95 Ag5 221 245 Sn89 Sb10.5 Cu0.5 242 262 Sn10 Pb88 Ag2.0 268 290 Sn5 Pb92.5 Ag2.5 287 296 Sn10 Pb90 275 302 Sn5 Pb95 308 312 -E-: Eutectic MP: Melting point : Lead free Stencil Design – Stencil design has two elements: aperture design and stencil technology choice. Stencil aperture design determines two things: paste volume printed and paste location. A good stencil design will place only as much solder paste as is required. Too much paste will produce too tall a fillet and greater torque during liquefaction of the solder. A good design also places the solder in a location that ensures appropriate component- to-paste overlap. With too little overlap, there may be inadequate adhesion on the pad that reflows second. With too much overlap, solder beads/balls show up on the side of chip components. Stencil technology defines the expected paste release characteristics. In order of increasing paste release performance there are chemically etched stencils, laser cut stencils, and electroformed stencils. Electropolishing and secondary plating of chemically etched and laser cut stencils have been proven to improve their paste release performance. 0805 0603 0402 0201 01005 US Quarter shown for scale 3 Print Process – One factor that has been shown to dramatically decrease tombstoning is the quality of print. With more uniform deposits, adhesion is more even from pad to pad. For 0201 apertures and others similar in size, Type 4 and Type 5 solder pastes have been proven to significantly improve print quality. Print settings should be optimized for maximum print definition and uniformity. Placement Process – If the component is placed more to one side or another, it will allow more surface tension to be applied to that side, and the component can stand up. If the component is not placed with sufficient pressure, it will begin to tip as wetting occurs, and if it is pushed too deeply into the paste, the paste will be displaced, and (again) uneven wetting may occur. Reflow Process – The reflow process is probably the most significant contributor to tombstoning. When a board design with tombstone-friendly features is sent through the oven, how the board is heated can make a tombstone problem either better or worse. To minimize tombstoning, the goal is to ramp temperature such that the solder alloy liquidus is achieved uniformly for all pairs of pads on the board. This means that the whole board should be brought to a temperature just below liquidus, and then slowly ramped up to reflow. By keeping wetting forces equal on both sides of a chip component, it is less likely to tombstone. For most products, a ramp rate of around 1° C per second is adequate insurance against reflow-induced tombstoning. More difficult products may require slower ramp rates with some as low as 0.33° C per second. Tombstone Optimized Profile Conclusion Every instance of tombstone components can be traced back to one or more of the variables discussed. If you do have tombstone components on an assembly, time spent on root cause analysis can quickly narrow down which variables are contributing to your problem. If one or two variables are difficult to change, sometimes the remaining variables can be manipulated to overcome weaknesses in design or process elements. If the tombstone problem resists your efforts, contact your solder paste supplier for assistance. Request samples If you’d like to test EFD solder paste or thermal compounds, please request samples. Simply go to www.nordsonefd.com/SolderSampleRequest. Request More Information Nordson EFD’s worldwide network of experienced solder paste specialists are available to discuss your dispensing project and recommend a system that meets your technical requirements and budget. Call or email us for a consultation. 800-556-3484 firstname.lastname@example.org www.nordsonefd.com/recommendations Connect with us For Nordson EFD sales and service in over 40 countries, contact Nordson EFD or go to www.nordsonefd.com. Global East Providence, RI USA 800-556-3484; +1-401-431-7000 email@example.com Europe Dunstable, Bedfordshire, UK 0800 585733; +44 (0) 1582 666334 firstname.lastname@example.org Asia China: +86 (21) 3866 9006; email@example.com India: +91 80 4021 3600; firstname.lastname@example.org Japan: +81 03 5762 2760; email@example.com Korea: +82-31-736-8321; firstname.lastname@example.org SEAsia: +65 6796 9522; email@example.com ©2019 Nordson Corporation. v011819
The issue of tombstoning rose to prominence because, while components and assemblies have become much smaller over time, overall assembly processes have remained much the same. As components become smaller, so can your process windows.